Ground-based high temporal and vertical resolution datasets from observations during 2002-07 at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) tropical western Pacific (TWP) site on Manus Island are used to examine the characteristics of clouds and rainfall associated with the active phase of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) passing over Manus. A composite MJO event at Manus is developed based on the NOAA MJO index 4 and precipitation using 13 events. The cloud characteristics associated with the active phase of the MJO at Manus show a two-phase structure as the wave passes over Manus. During the development phase, congestus plays an important role, and the enhanced convection is located between surface westerly and easterly wind anomalies (type-I structure). During the mature phase, deep convection is the dominant cloud type, and the enhanced convection is collocated with the westerly wind anomalies (type-II structure). Consistent with this two-phase structure, the heavy rainfall frequency also shows a two-peak structure during the MJO disturbance, while light rainfall does not show a clear relation to the intraseasonal disturbance associated with the MJO. In addition, a positive relationship between the precipitation rate and precipitable water vapor exists at Manus, and the atmospheric column is less moist after the passing of theMJOconvection center than before.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Atmospheric Science