The efficiency of state-of-the-art perovskite solar cells is limited by carrier recombination at defects and interfaces. Thus, understanding these losses and how to reduce them is the way forward toward the Shockley-Queisser limit. Here, we demonstrate that ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy can directly probe hole extraction and recombination dynamics at perovskite/hole transport layer (HTL) interfaces. To illustrate this, we employed PDPP-3T as HTL because its ground-state absorption is at lower energy than the perovskite's photobleach, enabling direct monitoring of interfacial hole extraction and recombination. Moreover, by fitting the carrier dynamics using a diffusion model, we determined the carrier mobility. Afterwards, by varying the perovskite thickness, we distinguished between carrier diffusion and carrier extraction at the interface. Lastly, we prepared device-like structures, TiO2/perovskite/PDPP-3T stacks, and observed reduced carrier recombination in the perovskite. From PDPP-3T carrier dynamics, we deduced that hole extraction is one order faster than recombination of holes at the interface.