Objective: This study investigated the presence of Enterococcus faecalis in primary teeth with primary root canal infections and related to the possible failure of pulpectomy outcome after 36 months. Material and methods: Root canal samples were obtained from 25 out of 244 patients using the sterile paper cone method. The identification of E. faecalis was done with culture and molecular tests using species-specific 16S rRNA gene-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR). After 36 months, the pulpectomy outcome was evaluated. Results:Enterococcus faecalis was found in five (20%) samples, and dental caries were the cause of primary infection in all of them. Pulpectomy outcome was evaluated only in teeth that completed the entire clinical protocol and were followed up to 36 months (n = 8). From these, 75% (n = 6) were successful and 25% (n = 2) failed. E. faecalis was present in 50% of both successful and failed cases. Conclusions:Enterococcus faecalis was not related to the failure of endodontic treatment of primary teeth.