Photothermal therapy (PTT) is an emerging therapeutic strategy in the treatment of cancer; however, a critical challenge remains in the rational design of synergistic nanoparticles as potential photothermal transduction agent that can effectively enhance the therapeutic outcome of PTT for tumor ablation. Herein, we rationally designed, developed, and characterized hollow-structured CuS nanoparticles composited with carbon dots (CuSCD), which demonstrated excellent photothermal conversion efficiency under 808 nm laser irradiation with enhanced biocompatibility and reduced toxicity. Following coating macrophage membrane hybridized with T7 peptide on the surface of proteasome inhibitor loaded CuSCD, CuSCDB@MMT7 exhibited targeted specificity to cancer cells with the characteristics of immune escaping and enhanced transferrin receptor-mediated endocytosis. Predominantly, CuSCDB@MMT7-triggered PTT exhibited the accumulation of polyubiquitinated tumor suppressor protein that is heat stabilized under NIR induced hyperthermia, facilitating augmented tumor cell apoptosis and the attenuated metastasis. This study provides a proof-of-concept for the proteasome inhibitor-loaded CuS/carbon dots nanocomposites-PTT strategy, and highlights a promising therapeutic strategy for realizing enhanced therapeutic outcomes for effective clinical cancer therapy.