Pursuing the greater energy density and longer life span of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) are urgently needed to satisfy the dramatically increased demand in energy market, where the metal oxide-based anodes are being intensively studied due to the higher capacity over that of the traditional graphite anode. Herein, we introduce a new and sustainable strategy to construct the metal oxide-based anode with high capacity and extremely long cycle life, in which the features of bio-inspired architectures and hetero-atom doping can contribute a lot for great performances. In detail, one-dimensional tube-like metal oxide (e.g., MnO) coated on N-doped carbon framework (i.e., MnO/N-C) is designed using the natural abundant and renewable Metaplexis japonica fibers (MJFs) as the bio-template and hetero-atom sources. Benefiting from the uniqueness of structure and compositions, as-prepared MnO/N-C demonstrates extremely high rate capacities of 951, 777, 497, 435 mAh g-1 at the rates of 0.5, 2, 4 and 5 A g-1 respectively with a good stability more than 1000 cycles. We find that the electrochemical performances are superior to most previous MnO-based anode, in which the faster kinetics of conversion reactions on the merit of the ion/electron transportation and morphological evolution is verified. We hope that the concept of bio-inspired architectures with hetero-atom doping can be applied in the wider applications for greater capabilities.