Background Despite well established clinical guidelines, performance of long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) programs shows marked variability among territories. The current study assessed the LTOT program and the health status of patients on LTOT prior to the deployment of community-based integrated care in an urban health district of Barcelona (Spain). Aims To assess: i) the LTOT program and health status of the patients on LTOT in the health district; ii) their frailty profile; and, iii) the requirements for effective deployment of integrated care services for these patients. Methods Cross-sectional observational study design including all patients (n = 406) on LTOT living in the health district. Health status, frailty, arterial blood gases, forced spirometry and hand-grip muscle strength were measured. Network analysis of frailty was carried out. Results Adequacy of LTOT prescription (n = 362): 47% and 31% of the patients had PaO2 ≤ 60 mmHg and ≤55 mmHg, respectively. Adherence to LTOT: 31% of all patients used LTOT ≥15 h/d; this figure increased to 67% in those with PaO2≤60 mmHg. Assessment of frailty: Overall, LTOT patients presented moderate to severe frailty. Care complexity was observed in 42% of the patients. Conclusions Adequacy and adherence to LTOT was poor and many patients were frail and complex. The outcomes of the network analysis may contribute to enhance assessment of frailty in LTOT patients. These observations suggest that an integrated care strategy has the potential to improve the health outcomes of these patients.