The Antarctic soil microbial community has a crucial role in the growth and stabilization of higher organisms, such as vascular plants. Analysis of the soil microbiota composition in that extreme environmental condition is crucial to understand the ecological importance and biotechnological potential. We evaluated the efficiency of isolation and abundance of strict anaerobes in the vascular plant Deschampsia antarctica rhizosphere collected in the Antarctic’s Admiralty Bay and associated biodiversity to metabolic perspective and enzymatic activity. Using anaerobic cultivation methods, we identified and isolated a range of microbial taxa whose abundance was associated with Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) and presences were exclusively endemic to the Antarctic continent. Firmicutes was the most abundant phylum (73 %), with the genus Clostridium found as the most isolated taxa. Here, we describe two soil treatments (oxygen gradient and heat shock) and 27 physicochemical culture conditions were able to increase the diversity of anaerobic bacteria isolates. Heat shock treatment allowed to isolate a high percentage of new species (63.63 %), as well as isolation of species with high enzymatic activity (80.77 %), which would have potential industry application. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the role of anaerobic microbes regarding ecology, evolutionary, and biotechnological features essential to the Antarctic ecosystem.