Precise control of the microstructure in organic semiconductors (OSCs) is essential for developing high-performance organic electronic devices. Here, a comprehensive charge transport characterization of two recently reported rigid-rod conjugated polymers that do not contain single bonds in the main chain is reported. It is demonstrated that the molecular design of the polymer makes it possible to achieve an extended linear backbone structure, which can be directly visualized by high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The rigid structure of the polymers allows the formation of thin films with uniaxially aligned polymer chains by using a simple one-step solution-shear/bar coating technique. These aligned films show a high optical anisotropy with a dichroic ratio of up to a factor of 6. Transport measurements performed using top-gate bottom-contact field-effect transistors exhibit a high saturation electron mobility of 0.2 cm2 V-1 s-1 along the alignment direction, which is more than six times higher than the value reported in the previous work. This work demonstrates that this new class of polymers is able to achieve mobility values comparable to state-of-the-art n-type polymers and identifies an effective processing strategy for this class of rigid-rod polymer system to optimize their charge transport properties.