Accelerometers are among the most mature sensor technologies with a broad range of applications in multiple fields and industries. They represent the most widely used microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices with excellent and reliable performance. MEMS acceleration sensors established dominance mainly in navigation and control applications. In recent years, however, recent technologies and materials have emerged that introduce novel sensing mechanisms, improve performance, enable customization, reduce cost, and reduce fabrication complexity. Herein, the recent advances in accelerometers based on MEMS and recent emerging technologies are reviewed. This work provides a comprehensive review of accelerometers’ sensing mechanisms and the main characteristics and features of each type of sensor, material, and fabrication strategies used to fabricate them. From the aspect of sensor application, this work focuses on reviewing applications that demonstrate the use of accelerometers manufactured using unconventional technologies and materials in prevailing fields such as healthcare monitoring, automotive industry, navigation, building, and structural monitoring. Moreover, challenges and future efforts needed to be addressed in this field are summarized.