The low-temperature oxidation mechanism of n butyl radicals (n-C4H9) has been investigated by high level quantum chemical calculations coupled with the Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus/Master Equation (RRKM/ME) theory. The potential energy surfaces (PES) were explored at the QCISD(T)/CBS//B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. The temperature- and pressure-dependent rate constants were computed and fitted in modified Arrhenius parameters. The major reaction channels were discussed to more deeply understand the competing relationships between chain branching, chain propagation and termination reactions. The results show that the 1,5 H-shift reaction is more competitive than the 1,6 H-shift and 1,4 H-shift for isomerization reactions of n butyl peroxy radicals, and the concerted HO2 elimination channel to form butene becomes more important at high temperatures. Furthermore, based on our calculations, a revised kinetic model was developed to describe n-butane oxidation. Good consistency between model predictions and experimental data was shown. This study enhances our understanding of the combustion mechanism of n-butane and can be used as a reliable reference for mechanistic understanding of larger alkanes.