Sorption-based atmospheric water harvesting (SAWH), which uses sorbents to capture water vapor from the air and low-grade energy to produce fresh liquid water, has been recognized as a promising strategy for decentralized water supply in arid areas. This review aims to summarize the latest progress in this field and provide perspectives for the further development of SAWH, focusing on the design of sorbent materials and the optimization of the entire system. We first introduce the water sorption mechanisms on different sorbent materials. Next, we discuss the properties and performances of various sorbents developed for SAWH by categorizing them into specific groups: nanoporous solids, hygroscopic polymers, salt-based composites, and liquid sorbents; for each type of sorbent materials, we have analyzed its advantages and limitations, as well as design strategies. In addition, we discuss the influences of the mass and heat transport of the SAWH system on its overall performance in actual operations, and introduce different types of water harvesters developed for SAWH. In the last section, we outline the challenges in this field from fundamental research and practical application aspects, and describe roadmaps for the future development of this technology.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Chemistry