Fiber Optic (FO) sensing capabilities for downhole monitoring include, among other techniques, Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) and Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS). The appeal of DTS and DAS data is based on its high temporal and spatial sampling, allowing for very fine localization of processes in a wellbore. Furthermore, the broad frequency spectrum that especially DAS data is acquired with, enables observations, ranging from more continuous effects like oil flow, to more distinct effects like opening and closing of valves.
Due to the high data volume of hundreds of Gb per well per hour, DAS data has traditionally been acquired acquisition-based, where data is recorded for a limited amount of time and processed at a later point in time. This limits the decision-making capability based on this data as reacting to events is only possible long after the event occurred. Equinor has addressed these decision-making shortcomings by building a real-time streaming solution for transferring, processing, and interpretation of its FO data at the Johan Sverdrup field in the North Sea.
The streaming solution for FO data consists of offshore interrogators streaming raw DAS and DTS data via a dedicated bandwidth to an onshore processing cluster. There, DAS data is transformed into FO feature data, e.g., Frequency Band Energies, which are heavily decimated versions of the raw data; allowing insight extraction, while significantly reducing data volumes. DTS and DAS FO feature data are then streamed to a custom-made, cloud-based visualization and integration platform. This cloud-based platform allows efficient inspection of large data sets, control and evaluation of applications based on these data, and sharing of FO data within the Johan Sverdrup asset.
During the last year, this FO data streaming pipeline has processed several tens of PB of FO data, monitoring a range of well operations and processes. Qualitatively, the benefits and potential of the real-time data acquisitions have been illustrated by providing a greater understanding of current well conditions and processes. Alongside the FO data pipeline, multiple prototype applications have been developed for automated monitoring of Gas Lift Valves, Safety Valve operations, Gas Lift rate estimation, and monitoring production start-up, all providing insights in real-time. For certain use cases, such as monitoring production start-up, the FO data provides a previously non-existent monitoring solution.
In this paper, we will discuss in detail the FO data pipeline architecture from-platform-to-cloud, illustrate several data examples, and discuss the way-forward for "real-time" FO data analytics.