Interferometric migration of free-surface multiples in vertical-seismic-profile (VSP) data has two significant advantages over standard VSP imaging: (1) a significantly larger imaging area compared to migrating VSP primaries and (2) less sensitivity to velocity-estimation and static errors than other methods for migration of multiples. In this paper, we present a 3D wave-equation interferometric migration method that efficiently images VSP free-surface multiples. Synthetic and field data results confirm that a reflectivity image volume, comparable in size to a 3D surface seismic survey around the well, can be computed economically. The reflectivity image volume has less fold density and lower signal-to-noise ratio than that obtained by a conventional 3D surface seismic survey because of the relatively weak energy of multiples and the limited number of geophones in the well. However, the efficiency of this method for migrating VSP multiples suggests that it might sometimes be a useful tool for 4D seismic monitoring where reflectivity images can be computed quickly for each time-lapse survey.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Geochemistry and Petrology