3D Printing of a Leaf Spring: A Demonstration of Closed-Loop Control in Additive Manufacturing

Kevin Garanger, Thanakorn Khamvilai, Eric Feron

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

6 Scopus citations

Abstract

3D printing is rapidly becoming a commodity. However, the quality of the printed parts is not always even nor predictable. Feedback control is demonstrated during the printing of a plastic object using additive manufacturing as a means to improve macroscopic mechanical properties of the object. The printed object is a leaf spring made of several parts of different infill density values, which are the control variables in this problem. In order to achieve a desired objective stiffness, measurements are taken after each part is completed and the infill density is adjusted accordingly in a closed-loop framework. With feedback control, the absolute error of the measured part stiffness is reduced from 11.63% to 1.34% relative to the specified stiffness. This experiment is therefore a proof of concept to show the relevance of using feedback control in additive manufacturing. By considering the printing process and the measurements as stochastic processes, we show how stochastic optimal control and Kalman filtering can be used to improve the quality of objects manufactured with rudimentary printers.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publication2018 IEEE Conference on Control Technology and Applications, CCTA 2018
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Pages465-470
Number of pages6
ISBN (Print)9781538676981
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 26 2018
Externally publishedYes

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