16.1% Efficient Hysteresis-Free Mesostructured Perovskite Solar Cells Based on Synergistically Improved ZnO Nanorod Arrays

Khalid Mahmood, Bhabani Sankar Swain, Aram Amassian

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

188 Scopus citations

Abstract

Significant efficiency improvements are reported in mesoscopic perovskite solar cells based on the development of a low-temperature solution-processed ZnO nanorod (NR) array exhibiting higher NR aspect ratio, enhanced electron density, and substantially reduced work function than conventional ZnO NRs. These features synergistically result in hysteresis-free, scan-independent, and stabilized devices with an efficiency of 16.1%. Electron-rich, nitrogen-doped ZnO (N:ZnO) NR-based electron transporting materials (ETMs) with enhanced electron mobility produced using ammonium acetate show consistently higher efficiencies by one to three power points than undoped ZnO NRs. Additionally, the preferential electrostatic interaction between the -nonpolar facets of N:ZnO and the conjugated polyelectrolyte polyethylenimine (PEI) has been relied on to promote the hydrothermal growth of high aspect ratio NR arrays and substantially improve the infiltration of the perovskite light absorber into the ETM. Using the same interactions, a conformal PEI coating on the electron-rich high aspect ratio N:ZnO NR arrays is -successfully applied, resulting in a favorable work function shift and altogether leading to the significant boost in efficiency from 16%. These results largely surpass the state-of-the-art PCE of ZnO-based perovskite solar cells and highlight the benefits of synergistically combining mesoscale control with doping and surface modification. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1500568
JournalAdvanced Energy Materials
Volume5
Issue number17
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 22 2015

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Materials Science(all)

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